The Nobel Prizes are five distinct awards given, in accordance with Alfred Nobel‘s will from 1895, to “those who during the preceding year, have bestowed the greatest benefit to humankind.” The most well-known accomplishment of Swedish chemist, engineer, and industrialist Alfred Nobel is the creation of dynamite. Throughout his lifetime, Nobel created several wills. The final was written by him more than a year before his passing, and he signed it on November 27, 1895, at the Swedish-Norwegian Club in Paris. To the surprise of many, Nobel’s dying will and testament directed that his riches be used to establish some awards for individuals who advance peace, literature, write papers, physiology, medicine, or physics with the “greatest benefit to mankind.”that later came to be known as “Nobel Prizes.” The first Nobel Prize was given out in 1901.The Nobel Prizes are given in physics, chemistry, literature, physiology or medicine, and peace. The Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel was established in 1968 with funding from SverigesRiksbank (Sweden’s central bank), which was also responsible for its administration by the Nobel Foundation. The Nobel Prizes are frequently recognized as the most esteemed prizes offered in their respective professions.The Nobel Peace Medal can be given to organizations with more than three members, but no prize may be shared by more than three people.

The selection of Nobel laureates is not a foundation-led procedure. Alfred Nobel’s wealth provided funding for the Nobel Prize. Official sources state that Alfred Nobel left the majority of his wealth to the Nobel Foundation, which today serves as the foundation for the Nobel Prize.

RagnarSohlman and Rudolf Lilljequist, the will’s executors, established the Nobel Foundation to manage the estate and coordinate the granting of prizes.

The Norwegian Nobel Committee was established per Nobel’s directions, and its members were chosen soon after the will’s acceptance in April 1897. The additional prize-giving organizations were chosen shortly after that. These were the Swedish Academy on June 9, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences on June 11, and the Karolinska Institute on June 7. The Nobel Foundation agreed on the criteria for awarding the prizes, and King Oscar II promulgated the newly drafted laws of the Nobel Foundation in 1900. The personal union between Sweden and Norway was established in 1905. The personal union between Norwayand Sweden was dissolved in 1905.Alfred Nobel passed away from a brain hemorrhage in his house in San Remo, Italy, on December 10, 1896. He died at the age of 63.

Creation and Selection

According to Alfred Nobel’s last will, which was read aloud in Stockholm on December 30, 1896, individuals who benefit humanity would be rewarded by a foundation he established.Alfred Nobel’s wealth provided funding for the Nobel Prize. Official sources state that Alfred Nobel left the majority of his wealth to the Nobel Foundation, which today serves as the foundation for the Nobel Prize. On June 29, 1900, a private foundation called the Nobel Foundation was established. Its job is to oversee the administration and finances of the Nobel Prizes. The foundation’s main responsibility under Nobel’s will is to oversee the money he left behind.

The Nobel Committee then draughts a report that incorporates the recommendations of subject-matter experts. This is provided to the prize-awarding organizations together with the list of preliminary contenders. The six prizes granted are given by four organizations:

A majority vote is used by the institutions to select the laureate or laureates in each discipline. The vote is immediately followed by the announcement of their decision, which cannot be challenged. Per award, a maximum of three laureates and two distinct works may be chosen. The prizes can only be granted to individuals, except the Peace Prize, which can be given to institutions.

Indian Nobel Laureates

The Nobel Prize was established in 1901, and as of 2022, a total of 989 people (954 individuals and 27 organizations) received it. Twelve of the honorees are Indian (five Indian citizens and seven of Indian ancestry or residency). In 1913, Rabindranath Tagore became the first Asian and Indian citizen to receive an award. The sole female honoree on the list is Mother Teresa. Rabindranath Tagore and CV Raman, two Nobel laureates, were British Indian nationals when they received their awards, while two other laureates had foreign ancestry (Ross and Kipling). Mother Teresa, Sen, and Satyarthi were three of the laureates who were Republic of India citizens, whereas Khorana, Chandrasekhar, Ramakrishnan, and Banerjee were four Indians by birth who later became foreign nationals.


2022 Nobel Laureates

Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine

SvantePaabo received the year’s top honor in physiology or medicine on October 3. A Swedish geneticist named Dr. Pääbo won for his research on the genomes of extinct hominins and human evolution. He was recognized for his efforts in creating a full Neanderthal genome, extracting genetic material from 40,000-year-old bones, and founding the area of ancient DNA studies.

Nobel Prize for Physics

Three men, Alain Aspect, John F. Clauser, and Anton Zeilinger, shared the physics award on October 4 for their contributions to quantum technologies. The Nobel Committee for Physics stated that their research “shook the basic base of how we interpret measurements.”

Nobel Prize for Chemistry

For the creation of click chemistry and bio-orthogonal chemistry, Carolyn R. Bertozzi,Morten Meldal, and K. Barry Sharpless shared the chemistry prize on October 5.Since 2000, the three chemists have been working independently to develop useful chemicals that have “led to a revolution in how chemists conceive about putting molecules together.“The committee observed that Dr. Bertozzi is the seventh woman to receive the award, while Dr. Sharpless is the sixth scientist to receive two Nobel prizes.

Nobel Prize for Literature

On October 6, French novelist Annie Ernaux received the Nobel Prize in literature. The “courage and clinical clarity with which she discovers the roots, estrangements, and collective restrictions of personal memory” has been praised, according to Mats Malm, the permanent secretary of the Swedish Academy. The 82-year-old Ms. Ernaux is the 17th female author to receive the award since it was established in 1901.

Nobel Prize for Peace

Ales Bialiatski, a detained activist from Belarus, Memorial, a Russian group, and the Center for Civil Liberties in Ukrainereceived the Nobel Peace Prize. In announcing the winners, Berit Reiss-Andersen, chair of the Norwegian Nobel Committee, remarked, “The Peace Prize laureates represent civil society in their own countries.” They have long supported the freedom to oppose authority and defend citizens’ basic rights. The committee claimed that it had picked the three winners to recognize those in the Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine surrounding nations who had made contributions to “human rights, democracy, and peaceful coexistence.”

Nobel Prize for Economics

The former Federal Reserve chair Ben S. Bernanke and two other academics received the prize for economic science on October 10 for their work on banking and financial crises.Along with Mr. Bernanke, who is currently employed by the Brookings Institution in Washington, the prize was also won by economists Douglas W. Diamond from the University of Chicago and Philip H. Dybvig from Washington University in St. Louis.

(Technically speaking, the economics award, one of the highest in the discipline, is not a Nobel Prize. Since economic sciences were not one of the first categories that Alfred Nobel outlined in his will in 1895, it is known as the SverigesRiksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel.

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